Typology and cross dating
In such cases subjective element cannot be ruled out.
But, for a single culture site the method is quite reliable.
The deposit thus occurring forms layers depending on the nature of the material brought in by the people inhabiting the area.
According to this method, the upper deposits are younger and the lower deposits are older.
In Portuguese medieval art, freestanding wooden sculptures representing Christ on the Cross are among the less studied typologies.
For this reason, it is important to discuss and question some of the most representative works of aesthetic values and/or iconographic models that characterised this European production between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries.
Commissioned by Portuguese patrons, they have been defined as Portuguese.
Still others remain strictly relative -- collagen content, fluorine and nitrogen test, and radiometric assay.
Other methods include: coin dating, seriation, and amino-acid racemization.
The sequence of development of culture or the relationship between events that represent culture can be established only when events can be placed in proper time.
Chronology, the study of events in time frame, is hence the central theme of archaeologist, like the geologist who deals with the story of earth history.
Search for typology and cross dating:
The emergence of man through the process of biological and cultural evolution is a story of long span of time.